Basic Sciences

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Basic Sciences 2016-12-16T02:09:25+00:00

Basic Sciences Didactics

Continuous reviews are done and modifications are introduced to assure that a comprehensive and coherent presentation of Basic Medical Sciences is offered to the student.

Anatomy I and II

This course is designed to provide the basic knowledge of human anatomy which is indispensable for medical practice. The gross morphology of the human body is presented in a systemic manner utilizing both laboratory and lecture presentations. Emphasis is on the concepts of organ morphology and topography necessary for understanding anatomic correlations. Anatomic Sciences are practically taught through cadaver dissection. Greater emphasis is given to clinical case studies to relevant topics as a part of an integrated approach to the course. Anatomy II covers Head and Neck and Anatomy I covers the rest of Anatomy.

The course also includes the study of human development during the embryonic stage. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of sequential development of embryos, tissues and organs through graded stages.

Medical Physiology I and II

Medical Physiology I is taught in 90 hours in the first trimester across 16 weeks. In the first trimester Medical Physiology (110MP) is taught in four sections including cell physiology, cardiovascular and blood physiology, respiratory physiology, renal and acid-base physiology. The course is presented in the form of series of lectures, clinical case scenarios, problem-solving, student presentations, and small group discussions. Students will be evaluated based on their performance in quizzes, midterm examination, student presentations, final examination, and professionalism. By the end of the course students will develop a thorough understanding of physiology and should be able to integrate the functions and regulation of all the organ systems in the human body.

Medical Physiology II is taught in 70 hours in the second trimester across 16 weeks. In the second trimester (210 MP) the remaining four sections of endocrine physiology, reproductive physiology, gastrointestinal, and neurophysiology are taught. The course is presented in the form of series of lectures, clinical case scenarios, problem-solving, student presentations, and small group discussions. Students will be evaluated based on their performance in quizzes, midterm examination, student presentations, final examination, and professionalism. By the end of the course students will develop a thorough understanding of physiology and should be able to integrate the functions and regulation of all the organ systems in the human body.

Histology

Histology covers the structure of cells, tissues and organs in relation to their function at the cellular level. The course is designed to familiarize students with cell and tissue structure and to provide a working knowledge of normal light microscopic morphology for later study in pathology. Lectures will cover cells and their specific tissues. Description of structures of various organs will be correlated with their biochemical and physiological functions. Laboratory exercises will give students an opportunity to study the light microscopic structure of normal cells, tissues and organs, and to review concepts covered in the lectures.

Doctor/Patient Relationship and medical ethics

The Doctor-Patient relationship is the medium through which doctoring occurs and in fact the ethical core of medicine. Instruction to manage this relationship is an integral part of medical training that is heavily influenced by informal and hidden curricula. Informal curricula entail learning that takes place through interpersonal interactions. Hidden curricula reflect the values of the organizational structure and culture. Intrinsic to these curricula is role modeling—students learning from observing and imitating the behaviors of their teachers. The topics are examined in several clinical contexts such as acute care, pediatrics, geriatrics, and rehabilitation medicine. Small group sessions within lecture provide a chance for in-depth discussion.

Medical Ethics is taught in 20 hours in the first trimester along with Doctor-Patient Relationship course. Medical ethics includes concepts of legal competence, informed consent, confidentiality, reportable illnesses, ethical issues in patients with HIV infection, voluntary and involuntary hospitalization, advance directives, death and euthanasia, medical malpractice, and impaired physicians. The course is presented in the form of series of lectures, clinical case scenarios, problem-solving, student presentations, and small group discussions. By the end of the course students will develop a thorough understanding of ethical and legal issues in medicine.

Biochemistry I and II

The aim of Biochemistry – I course module is to provide the 1st trimester medical students a solid foundation in the biochemical concepts about the macromolecules and relationship between the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules of living cells and their biological activities within the major metabolic pathways of the human body. The molecular genetics part of the course allows understanding the basic principles of chromosome structure, nucleic acid functions, gene expression, recombinant DNA techniques, gene cloning, interfering RNA events, recent advancement and significance of DNA sequencing technologies, as well as other aspects of gene analysis and gene manipulating techniques.

The Biochemistry – II course is designed for 2nd trimester students with the aim to provide insight into appreciating how the understanding of metabolic processes occurring in the mammalian body, could contribute to the understanding and explanation of pathological phenomena. Such knowledge will allow understanding how these biochemical processes change during disease, and understand how such processes offer opportunities for prevention, medical intervention and treatment and management of disease. The Medical Genetics portion of the course is entirely focused on human genetics, inherited traits, and their variations. The course  teaches the genetic organization within normal and abnormal individuals at various levels: in molecules, in cells, in families, and in populations. The course introduces some of the most common genetic diseases.

Microbiology I and II

Three major disciplines are covered during the course within 200 teaching hours: (a) Basic microbiology and infectious diseases; (b) Basic and clinical immunology; (c) Parasitology and tropical medicine. Each one of these disciplines is taught into two parts: (I) basic principles and introduction to the scientific background of the discipline followed by (II) clinical description of various diseases, symptoms, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment. The course teaches the role of the microbial agents in patients and in healthy subjects.

The course gradually builds sufficient knowledge in the field of medical microbiology and immunology that will prepare the student for his future medical career. Topics covered include bacterial physiology and genetics, introduction to virology and mycology, microorganisms of medical importance (bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites) (160 hours), principles of molecular and cellular immunology, and immunopathological disorders (40 hours). Laboratory exercises are offered as part of the course that will provide hands-on experience with basic microbiological and immunological techniques (10 practical hours).

Neuroanatomy I and II

The course is designed to teach principles of organization of the nervous system and give an appreciation of the biology of the nerve and neurological cells. Gross and microscopic anatomy of the nervous system will be presented as an Inter-disciplinary course. Lectures deal with the cytology of nerve cells and their processes, synapses, neurological cells and nerve sheaths, axoplasmic flow and growth of nerve processes area also considered. Architecture and organization of the cerebral cortex and spinal cord as related to functions. Neurological case studies are included as an integrated approach to the curriculum.

Public Health & Epidemiology

The overall aim of this course on public health is designed to provide an introduction to basic epidemiology, study designs, research methodology, and their practical usage in public health in making inferences by applying appropriate principles from biostatistics. Lectures, reading materials, videos, assignments and field trips are designed to provide an understanding on emerging chronic and infectious diseases, outbreak investigations, understanding of health systems, health care disparities, and ways to counteract it by applying appropriate preventive approaches and the principles of health care policies and management in providing equitable access to health care.

Medical Pharmacology I and II

The course is designed to teach pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic principles of pharmacology. In addition the properties of specific drugs or classes of drugs are discussed in terms of: mechanisms of action, therapeutic uses, adverse effects, drug interactions and contraindications. Emphasis is given on the selection of drugs for treatment in a given clinical scenario, Drugs to be avoided and to learn the impact of drug interactions. The course is designed to provide complete authoritative and current pharmacologic principles. Clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenetic principles are also an integral part of the course. Students will also be updated with newer drugs, mechanisms and safety profile. Lectures and Problem based learning exercises using clinical scenarios will be key to teaching the students.

Pathology I & II

Pathology is the bridging discipline that connects basic sciences with clinical practice. Students are taught basic concepts regarding different types of injurious stimuli (etiology), Mechanism of disease development (pathogenesis), Gross and microscopic changes (morphologic Changes) and Functional consequences of these changes (Clinical Manifestations). Pathology 1 is designed to facilitate students to understand the basic reactions of cells and tissues to abnormal stimuli/injury and their consequences in cell morphology and functions. In Pathology II, basic knowledge is utilized in understanding the diseases process affecting different organ systems. Lectures, Small group discussions and Problem based learning are the different types of teaching modalities used during Pathology I and II.

Behavioral Science I and II

Behavioral Sciences I (330BS) is taught in 80 hours in the third trimester across 16 weeks. In the third trimester students are introduced to the concepts of human development, neurobiology of behavior, behavioral psychology, and social behavior components of behavioral sciences. Students will be able to develop a thorough understanding of psychological and biological basis of various psychiatric disorders across different age groups (childhood, adulthood, and geriatric), and genders. The course is presented in the form of series of lectures, clinical case scenarios, problem-solving, student presentations, and small group discussions. By the end of the course students will develop a thorough understanding of components of human behavior and how they influence their interaction with others, environment, and interaction with their physician.

Behavioral Sciences II (430BS) is taught in 60 hours in the fourth trimesters across 16 weeks. In the fourth trimester students are taught how to do a clinical interview and do relevant examination with a psychiatric patient. Students will be able to develop a thorough understanding of various psychiatric disorders across different age groups (childhood, adulthood, and geriatric), and genders. The course is presented in the form of series of lectures, clinical case scenarios, problem-solving, student presentations, and small group discussions. By the end of the course students will develop a thorough understanding of components of human behavior and how they influence their interaction with others, environment, and interaction with their physician.

Introduction to Clinical Medicine I & II

The aim of the Introduction to clinical medicine I is to bridge the gap between basic sciences and clinical medicine and to encourage students to make connections between what they learn in the Basic Science courses with clinical applications in medicine. The student will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to enable him/her to effectively interview patients, obtain a history from them, and perform basic physical examination skills as would be required in hospital settings.

Introduction to clinical medicine II is offered during 5th trimester and is a bridging discipline between Basic Sciences and Clinical sciences of medical training. During this course important core clinical concepts from Biochemistry, Genetics, Pharmacology, Microbiology & Immunology, Biostatistics, Behavioral sciences and Pathology are explained to students in the form of lectures and problem solving exercises. This course mainly assists students in preparing them for clinical rotations.

Physical Diagnosis

Physical diagnosis includes the study of the techniques of history taking and physical examination. Further, the course teaches the art and science of determining disease by inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation and interview of the patient. The student will also learn to correlate this information with pertinent radiological and laboratory findings.

Essentials of Clinical Sciences

This course is designed to promote the understanding and application of fundamental disease processes in clinical settings. These concepts are applied in a systems-oriented approach to disease processes affecting musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, renal, nervous, gastrointestinal, hematological and endocrine systems. Upon completion of the course, students will understand pathophysiological changes, including how pathological processes are manifested, progress in the body, and primary and secondary effects.