PHILOSOPHY OF NURSING PROGRAM
Nursing is a professional discipline with academic and clinical dimensions. The nursing program values academic integrity and seeks to foster professional involvement and life-long learning in students as well as graduates. The heart of nursing is grounded in the meaning of caring. The nursing faculty believes that caring exists in authentic relationships through which all persons are respected and nurtured. Within these relationships, caring opens the possibility of transformation, inviting growth, healing, and wholeness of persons, families, and communities. In the reflective practice of nursing and nursing education, a caring environment affirms diversity in ways of being and ways of knowing. Spartan’s Nursing Program enforces confidentiality among its students which is essential for this professional discipline.
NURSING PROGRAM CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Based on the major concepts identified in the philosophy of Spartan Health Sciences University Nursing Program, the philosophy of quality caring is emphasised. This is encouraged practices of caring through interactions with patients, students, faculty and the health care team. The nursing curriculum is conceptualized from an organized body of knowledge specific to the art and science of nursing.
Patient: Person, Family and/or Community
- Patient is defined as person, family, and/or community. Person is conceptualized as a holistic being encompassing the personal, social, and physical dimensions. Clients as persons, families, and/or communities are viewed as open systems that interact and interface with the environment.
The dimensions are examined as follows:
- The personal dimension illuminates the uniqueness of each person. The nursing assessment of this dimension is based upon theories of human development and communication. It is inclusive of the person’s self-concept, body image, self-awareness, and self-esteem. Assessment also involves meanings of sexuality, spirituality, and philosophical values particular to each person.
- The social dimension focuses on the person n the context of family and environment and includes the cultural, moral, and political realms. Assessments within this dimension identify roles and patterns of behaviour that impact on health maintenance and related behaviours.
- The biological systems form the basis of assessment within the physical dimension. These include the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary/reproductive, integumentary, musculoskeletal, neurologic and respiratory systems. The genetic patterns of inheritance are also characteristic of the physical dimension.
Health is more than the absence of illness; because of its subjectivity, it is an elusive concept (Watson, 1989). Our faculty holds the following assumptions about health: 1) Health is a dynamic process; 2) Health is determined subjectively and objectively; 3) Health is optimal functioning in body, mind, and spirit; 4) Health is integrity of self; 5) Health is a sense of wholeness; 6) Health is coping adaptively; 7) Health is a subjective experience; 8) Health is a broad concept; 9) Health is growing and becoming (Lindberg et al., 1994).
Environment is defined as everything that is internal and external to the person. It is characterized by the physical, spiritual, political, cultural, social, ethical, and intellectual dimensions. Individuals do not exist in isolation, but rather interact with and relate to other individuals within families, and communities within a constantly changing society. As such, they influence and are influenced by their environment. Analysis of the impact of the socio-political, legal, ethical, and economic dimensions on individuals, families, and communities is an important activity of the professional nurse.
Nursing is an art, as well as, a science in which the holistic needs of the individual are met through utilization of the nursing process in a variety of settings. The practice of nursing takes place in an ever changing health care system and requires caring, critical thinking, competency, and legal/ethical accountability, dedication to an evolving body of knowledge, life-long learning and client advocacy
Nursing roles are always based on the context of the authentic relationship between nurse and patient and are identified as those of care provider, designer/manager/coordinator of care and member of a profession. The nurse-patient relationship is co-created and open to the possibility of transformation, growth, healing and wholeness. Through reflective practice, the nurse acts as an advocate for individuals, families, communities and global populations. It is believed that the professional nurse functions in roles as s/he enters into caring relationships with patients. The nurse as provider involves working collaboratively with patient to achieve wholeness and healing. As designer, functions as professional colleague, consultant, collaborator and evaluator. As manager, reveals itself through advocacy, integration and communication of care. As role of coordinator of care involves leadership, activism, and outcome assessment.Each course in the curriculum depicts how these nursing roles are developed and demonstrated through theory content and clinical experiences/evaluation.
Nursing process is applicable within the nursing curriculum. The nursing process is a problem-solving framework for all nurse-client/patient interactions. The systematic method for providing care comprises of five interrelated phases: assessment, nursing diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. As the student progresses through the program, s/he is expected to use the nursing process in planning and providing care for patients/clients who have increasingly complex problems in a diversity of settings.
Spartan Health Sciences University provides a learning environment that enables students the opportunity to acquire nursing knowledge, competent skills and a compassionate attitude for practice in the broad world community of nurses.
The University’s goal is to continuously produce Health Care professionals of the highest distinction; professionals who possess the necessary knowledge and adaptive skills pertinent to an ever changing world and rapidly growing and demanding healthcare system.
To fulfil this mission and reach our objectives, we have created a program of nursing education leading to the Associate Degree in Nursing that prepares our graduates to:
- Qualify for licensure
- Provide competent nursing care to culturally diverse individuals
- Acquire theoretical and clinical competence and analytical thought processes to make safe clinical decisions
- Pursue advanced nursing and clinical research at reputable institutions
- Become sufficiently familiar with disease conditions in St. Lucia, regionally and internationally
- Serve the public and nursing profession in a client-friendly and compassionate way
- Deliver exemplary nursing care with high ethical standards
Spartan Health Sciences University, School of Nursing works in conjunction with institutions such as the Sir Arthur Lewis Community College in its execution of the Department of Health Sciences program. Faculty and students at Spartan must satisfy local standards set by the St. Lucia Nursing Council that monitors the achieved qualifications, experience and competence. They ensure that graduates can function appropriately within the country’s hospitals and other health care facilities.
The Associate Degree Nursing curriculum provides knowledge, skills, and strategies to integrate safety and quality into nursing care, to practice in a dynamic environment, and to meet individual needs which impact health, quality of life, and achievement ofpotential.
Course work includes and builds upon the domains of healthcare, nursing practice, and the holistic individual. Content emphasizes the nurse as a member of the interdisciplinary team providing safe, individualized care while employing evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and informatics.
Graduates of this program are eligible to apply to take the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-RN) and the Regional Examination for Nurse Registration (RENR)
Employment opportunities are vast within the global health care system and may include positions within primary, secondary, rehabilitative, industrial, managerial and specialized health care facilities.
- NURSING PRACTICE – This pertains to the professional tenets of the Nursing Profession, the evolution and history of nursing, the systems of education of nurses, the regulation and practice guidelines and the imaging of nursing. It also encompasses the different dimensions including the physiological, psychological, social, cultural, cognitive and spiritual which guide nursing practice. The nurse is required to demonstrate a current knowledge base, a sense of accountability for practice in accordance with health and nursing legislation and a sensitivity and respect for patient rights.
- PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT – This relates to the manner in which the nurse conducts him/herself at all times. This conduct must be in keeping with the standards of the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics as well as regional and local standards of the profession. This refers to manner of interaction with patients, families and all personnel with whom the nurse is likely to interact. It also emphasizes the attitude to patient care and the need for each nurse to display a professional manner even in the most stressful situations.
- HEALTH PROMOTION AND MAINTENANCE OF WELLNESS – This pertains to the importance placed on assisting individuals and families to remain healthy. It stresses and encourages healthy lifestyles and the promotion of healthy environments for patients. It also refers to the sensitization of the society to the benefits of self-care and the development and utilization of self-care agencies within the population. The nurse is an advocate of health promotion and wellness.
- CARING INTERVENTIONS – This relates to the nursing behaviors, attitudes and actions that allow the nurse the opportunities and abilities to shape policies and practices, which influence the care individuals and families receive. It incorporates all interventions done in the interest of and with patients. These include those activities in which the nurse engages that allow for partnerships and alliances designed to improve the health outcomes for individuals and families.
- NURSING LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT – This refers to the planning, programming and implementation of nursing care to individuals and groups of patients and clients. In addition, it relates to the coordination of care within patient care units in a variety of settings at institutional and community levels and the evaluation of achievements. Leadership and management also involves the referral to and consultation with other health professionals, service providers and community and support services and full commitment to the continuity and improvement of nursing care.
- COMMUNICATION – This relates to the processes whereby meanings are assigned and conveyed to others to create shared awareness and understanding of phenomena. Communication is an important domain in nursing as it is the media through which the nurse-client bond is formed and trust in turn is developed. Communication includes the systems of documentation and referrals, the imparting of information through teaching, counselling and mass media.
- CRITICAL DECISION MAKING – This essential domain incorporates the mental processes of reaching agreements on the selection of courses of action and their rationales and outcomes. These processes are usually fast paced, urgent, high risk and are usually made with incomplete data and narrow windows. The nurse liaises with multiple disciplines, the patient or client and the family.
- REFLECTION AND VISIONING – This pertains to self-appraisal and professional development as well as reflection on practice, feelings and beliefs and their consequences for nurse/client relationships. This also reflects the need for planning for life-long learning and understanding the value of evidence and research for competent nursing practice. It also ensures that the conscientious nurse develops his/her professional practice in accordance with the health needs of the population and the changing patterns of disease and illness.
The program will be executed to assess the achievements of the established competencies/standards as set by the recognized Regional and International Authorities for nurses to practice efficiently.
|DOMAIN 1||UNITS OF COMPETENCE|
|Integrates nursing health care knowledge, skills and attitudes to provide safe and effective nursing care|
|Nursing Practice||Utilizes principles of primary health care to provide care for individuals, families and communities|
|Utilizes the nursing process as the framework for providing safe and effective nursing care|
|Practices in accordance with established standards of nursing professional practice|
|Practices within legislation affecting nursing practice and health care and within other national, regional and international regulatory frameworks and mechanisms for nursing, with emphasis on regional and international frameworks|
|Recognizes and responds appropriately to unsafe or unprofessional practice|
|Demonstrates awareness of the influence of organizational and societal culture on the provision of health and nursing care|
UNITS OF COMPETENCE
|Practice safe, competent and ethical care in a manner that is consistent with the ICN code of ethics and conduct|
|Professional Conduct||Integrates organizational policies and guidelines with professional standards in performing all nursing roles|
|Practices in a way that acknowledges the dignity, culture, values, beliefs and rights of individuals and groups|
|Establishes and maintains effective and professionally appropriate therapeutic relationships|
|Practices within own scope of knowledge and skills|
|Recognizes and respects the roles and responsibilities of other members of the health care team|
|Demonstrates sensitivity and respect for diversity in personal choices, practices and beliefs including sexual orientation, gender and culture in interacting with the patient/client and family|
|Utilizes established protocols in communication directed to the provision of health care|
|Accepts responsibility for own actions and decisions with respect to patient and personal safety of self and others|
|Conducts self in a manner that reflects personal discipline and self-respect and the principles and dignity of the nursing profession|
|DOMAIN 3||UNITS OF COMPETENCE|
|Utilizes established protocols in communication directed to the provision and management of health care|
|Health Promotion And maintenance Of Wellness||Assists the client/patient to understand the link between health promotion strategies and health outcomes|
|Plans and implements health education and health promotion activities, focusing particularly on healthy lifestyles, wellness and the environment|
|Utilizes the principles of primary health care to provide health care to individuals, families and communities|
|Collaborates with the interdisciplinary health care team in research, policy setting and other functions supportive of delivery of comprehensive nursing care|
|DOMAIN 4||UNITS OF COMPETENCE|
|Uses appropriate assessment tools and techniques as the basis for delivering nursing care|
|Caring Interventions||Interprets data obtained to inform selection of interventions in the delivery of patient care|
|Explores alternatives, approaches and priorities of care with clients/patients and families|
|Prepares patients and clients for diagnostic procedures and treatments modalities in keeping with their circumstances|
|Selects appropriate interventions in the delivery of care for the benefit and wellbeing of the patient|
|Collaborates with other health team members to manage actual and potential needs of clients and patients|
|DOMAIN 5||UNITS OF COMPETENCE|
|Undertakes the clinical management of groups of clients/patients|
|Plans nursing care in consultation with individuals/groups, significant others and interdisciplinary health care team|
|Provides comprehensive, safe, efficient and effective evidence-based nursing care to achieve identified individuals/group health outcomes|
|Evaluates progress towards expected individuals/group health outcomes in consultation with individuals/groups, significant others and interdisciplinary health care team|
|Provides appropriate modelling and guidelines to colleagues and clients to assist in realizing planned individual, organizational and professional outcomes|
|Undertakes the clinical management of groups of clients/patients|
|Participates in the analysis, development, implementation and evaluation of clinical practices and policies that guide the delivery of patient care|
|DOMAIN 7||UNITS OF COMPETENCE|
|Uses critical thinking skills and professional judgment to inform decision making when delivering care to patients/clients|
|Clinical Decision Making||Incorporates evidence from research, clinical practice, client preference and other available sources to inform decision-making|
|Assists and support clients to make informed choices and to practice self-care skills|
|DOMAIN 8|| |
UNITS OF COMPETENCE
|Practices within an evidence-based framework|
|Professional Reflection and Visioning||Uses best available evidence, standards and guidelines to inform and evaluate nursing performance of self and others|
|Uses best available evidence, nursing expertise and respect for the values and beliefs of individuals/groups in the provision of nursing care|
|Uses critical thinking and reflective practice in performing the roles of the nurse|
|Supports and contributes to nursing and health care research|
|Contributes to ongoing professional development of self and others|
|Demonstrates critical inquiry skills in relation to new knowledge and technologies that benefit nursing care|
Upon completion of the Associate Degree Nursing Program, the graduate will upon licensure.
- Practice professional nursing behaviours incorporating personal responsibility and accountability for continual competence.
- Communicate professionally and effectively with individuals, significant support persons (s) and members of the healthcare system.
- Integrate knowledge of the holistic needs of the individual to provide an individual cantered assessment.
- Incorporate informatics to formulate evidence-based clinical judgments and management decisions
- Integrate the concepts of caring in nursing practice in diverse health care settings across the health-illness continuum.
- Collaborate with the Ministry of Health to advocate for positive outcomes for the individual, organization and society.
- Manage health care for the individual using cost effective nursing strategies, quality improvement processes and current technologies
- Exhibit competencies in critical thinking, communication, evidence-based decision making, scholarly inquiry and technical skills in the practice of nursing.
- Integrate professional competencies in the nursing roles of provider, designer, manager, and coordinator of care and participate as an active member of the profession and health team.
- Assume ethical and legal responsibility and accountability in nursing practice, exemplifying the values of altruism, autonomy, human dignity, integrity, and social justice.
- Apply leadership concepts, skills, and decision-making in creating caring environments to promote health and healing in individuals, families, communities, and global populations.
Spartan Health Sciences University offers a three (3) year Associate Degree Nursing Program which comprises of 6 semesters of Associate Degree level nursing courses and clinical practice. In addition, this program prepares nursing students for United States of American’s National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-RN) and the
I. General Education. The Nursing Associate Degree Program comprises of 34 credit hours of courses from each of the following areas: humanities/fine arts, social/behavioural sciences, and natural sciences/mathematics. These are prerequisite courses within the PRE-NURSING PHASE of the program. (Refer to Appendix 1&2)
II. Major Hours. The Core Nursing Courses comprise of 50 credit hours (Refer to Appendix2)
III. Clinical Required Hours. The Associate Degree Nursing program comprises of 30 clinical credit hours. (Refer to Appendix 1&2)